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The Oxford history of Poland-Lithuania, vol.1: The making of by Robert I. Frost PDF

By Robert I. Frost

ISBN-10: 0198208693

ISBN-13: 9780198208693

The background of japanese eu is ruled via the tale of the increase of the Russian empire, but Russia purely emerged as a massive strength after 1700. For three hundred years the best energy in jap Europe was once the union among the dominion of Poland and the grand duchy of Lithuania, one of many longest-lasting political unions in eu background. but since it resulted in the late-eighteenth century in what are misleadingly termed the walls of Poland, it slightly beneficial properties in usual money owed of ecu history.

The Making of the Polish-Lithuanian Union 1385-1569 tells the tale of the formation of a consensual, decentralised, multinational, and religiously plural country equipped from less than up to above, that was once based by way of peaceable negotiation, no longer battle and conquest. From its inception in 1385-6, a imaginative and prescient of political union used to be built that proved appealing to Poles, Lithuanians, Ruthenians, and Germans, a union which was once prolonged to incorporate Prussia within the 1450s and Livonia within the 1560s. regardless of the customarily sour disagreements over the character of the union, those have been however conquer through a republican imaginative and prescient of a union of peoples in a single political group of electorate below an elected monarch. Robert Frost demanding situations interpretations of the union educated by means of the concept that the emergence of the sovereign country nation represents the essence of political modernity, and offers the Polish-Lithuanian union as a case examine of a composite state.

The smooth historical past of Poland, Lithuania, Ukraine, and Belarus can't be understood with out an figuring out of the legacy of the Polish-Lithuanian union. This quantity is the 1st certain research of the making of that union ever released in English.

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Gediminas’s other sons and their descendants were not neglected. Narimantas was duke o f Pinsk and Polatsk, and governor o f Novgorod for the brief period after 1333 when it swore allegiance to Lithuania. Four o f Narimantas’s five sons acquired Ruthenian duchies, while the sons o f Karijotas, duke of Navahrudak, ruled Podolia. Gediminid retention o f Ruthenian duchies depended on the dynasty’s rapid acculturation based on its adoption o f Ruthenian as the language o f government. A sophisticated written language, it was ideal for the purpose o f building Gedimi­ nid authority, while its use meant that Ruthenians could integrate successfully into the Gediminid system.

Algirdas brought Smolensk precariously into the Lithuanian orbit, but despite his second marriage to Juliana o f Tver, Tver and Novgorod preserved their independence by playing Lithuania off against Muscovy, and could not be absorbed. Algirdas led three attacks on Moscow: in 1368 he turned back after three days; in 1370 he stayed little longer, while in 1372 he refused battle although both armies were drawn up ready. 14 It was a dilemma that faced all his successors, and Lithuanian-Muscovite rivalry was to shape the history o f eastern Europe for centuries to come.

29 Jone Deveike, ‘The Lithuanian diarchies’, SEER, 28 (1950), 3 9 2 -4 0 5 ; the revival o f the idea by Gudevicius and Nikzentaitis is criticized by Nikodem : ‘Jedynowladztwo czy diarchia? Przyczynek do dziejow ustroju W . Ks. ’, Z H , 68 (2003), 7—30. 30 Krzyzaniakowa and Ochmariski, jagiello, 61. 31 Kolankowski, D zieje, i, 21. Lithuania 31 sending Kestutis in chains to Kreva, where he died in mysterious circumstances five days later, suffocated or strangled according to Vytautas and other sources favourable to him, although there is no independent confirmation o f the allegation, and suicide has also been suggested.

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The Oxford history of Poland-Lithuania, vol.1: The making of the Polish-Lithuanian Union, 1385-1569 by Robert I. Frost

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