By J. A. McLean
This quantity offers a entire survey of the idea, perform, and strategies of calorimetry as utilized to the examine of strength metabolism in people and animals. Calorimetry is used to estimate dietary necessities of guy and farm cattle and to guage diverse meals. it's also a strong instrument utilized in study into primary dietary and physiological lifestyles strategies and within the assessment of stresses imposed through irregular or critical environments. it really is at the moment being utilized in a variety of branches of clinical learn and will be used as a diagnostic instrument in hospitals for research of metabolic problems. The authors speak about either direct calorimetry, which measures warmth loss at once, and oblique calorimetry, the place warmth loss is inferred through dimension of a few of the chemical byproducts of metabolism. additionally, assistance is equipped to the instrumentation, technical difficulties, and precautions essential to receive actual calorimetric measurements.
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Additional info for Animal and Human Calorimetry
9d), but with aG, rG and qG replaced by a'G, r'G and q'G. The only commonly metabolised foodstuff to which the equations are not readily adaptable is alcohol. 2. 8) would therefore underestimate that part of the metabolic heat derived from alcohol by 5%. G (with positive signs to denote combustion). The new variable G' so introduced would represent the quantity of alcohol metabolised during the period of measurement; but this would only be known if the measuring period were long enough for the complete oxidation of a measured amount of alcohol consumed; an unlikely situation in practice.
The thermistors, which sense the temperatures of water in the vessel and jacket, form two arms of a Wheatstone bridge circuit; the two other arms consist of two high-stability resistors and a potentiometer used to balance the bridge when the calorimeter is initially set up. Thereafter if there is a change in the temperature of either Fig. 1. The adiabatic bomb calorimeter. Beckman thermometer Cover Firing plug Matched thermistors Thermometer 'Insulated', lid Calorimeter can containing the 'bomb' and water Oxygen inlet valve Stirrer Electrode assembly with platinum fuse and cotton wick Earth-return contact Crucible containing sample pellet Circulating water pump Electrode heaters Bomb calorimetry 27 thermistor, its electrical resistance alters and the bridge is unbalanced.
30 kJ are burned; the capacity is obtained by dividing the energy content of the benzoic acid sample by the temperature rise produced by its combustion. A preferable alternative is to burn a series of samples containing amounts of energy in Fig. 2. Calibration of an adiabatic bomb calorimeter by means of known quantities of benzoic acid. 40 r- 30 £ 20 8 10 I 1 I 2 3 Temperature rise (°C) 28 Calorific equivalents the range 0-40 kJ; a regression of the energy liberated on the temperature rise of the system gives the heat capacity (Fig.
Animal and Human Calorimetry by J. A. McLean