By Jaakko Hintikka
I n order to understand effectively what we're doing during this booklet it is important to gain that our method of linguistic theorizing differs from the existing perspectives. Our procedure should be defined by means of indicating what distinguishes it from the methodological principles present in theoretical linguistics, which I reflect on heavily faulty. Linguists in general construe their activity at present as that of constructing exceptionless generalizations from specific examples. This explanatory procedure is incorrect in different alternative ways. It presupposes that we will have "intuitions" approximately specific examples, frequently examples invented through the linguist himself or herself, trustworthy and sharp adequate to function a foundation of sharp generalizations. It additionally presupposes that we won't have both trustworthy direct entry to common linguistic regularities. either assumptions seem to me tremendous doubtful, and the 1st of them has in influence been challenged by means of linguists like Dwight Bol inger. there's additionally a few facts that the measure of unanimity between linguists in all fairness low in terms of much less transparent circumstances, even in reference to such particularly basic questions as grammaticality (acceptability). for that reason we've attempted to depend extra on quotations from modern fiction, newspapers and magazines than on linguists' and philosophers' advert hoc examples. I additionally locate it unusual that many of the related linguists as think that all of us own innate rules approximately normal features of humanly attainable grammars imagine that we will have entry to them merely through their specific consequences.
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Extra resources for Anaphora and Definite Descriptions: Two Applications of Game-Theoretical Semantics
Such a sentence S is felt to be deviant, and our treatment can supply an explanation of this deviance. It is important to realize, however, that a deviant sentence of this kind can be both syntactical and semantically unexceptionable; syntactically unexceptionable, in the sense of being formed by the right generative rules, and semantically unexceptionable, in the sense of being interpretable. Indeed such an S can only be shown to be logically false and hence deviant by means of its semantical interpretation.
Examples of valid sentences include the following: ( 44) ( Ax) (F [ x ] (45) (Ax)(Ay) 'VF[y]))). - & F[u]))]. 6. Appl ications It turns out that our game rule (G. anaphoric the) needs several further refinements. Before discussing them, however, we have to see how the rule just formulated works. Also, the problems into which the first simple-mindedrestriction suggestion ran present challenges to our treatment. We have to show that our treatment succeeds where the other suggestion fai led. First, let us take an example to see how (G.
The only) after that; and likewise for (24). It is of some interest to note that (21) and (23) receive the same force when "the" is given emphatic stress. , in our approach, later rule application. Even though we don't know how widely this generalization holds, it lends further credibility to the game-theoretical diagnosis of the phenomena we are deal ing with. Furthermore, there may be more than one other rule competing with (G. Russellian the). If so, there could be more that two possible readings of the sentence in question.
Anaphora and Definite Descriptions: Two Applications of Game-Theoretical Semantics by Jaakko Hintikka