By Ingalis A.G. (ed.)
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Aumayr and H. Winter, Phys. Scr. T28, 96 (1989). W. Lotz, Z. Phys. 216, 241 (1968). Report SFEC T 10 – Cryebis II, Laboratoire National Saturne, Center for Nuclear Studies, Saclay, France, 1981. E. R. MacKenzie, Phys. Fluids 14, 1171 (1971). E. Olson, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-23, 971 (1976). S. R. W. Stearns, Phys. Rev. A 22, 2494 (1980). R. Geller, B. Jacquot, C. Jacquot and P. Sermot, Nucl. Instrum. Methods 175, 261 (1980). M. M. J. G. W. Hamilton, Proceedings of the International Symposium on the Production and Neutralization of Hydrogen Ions and Beams, (Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY, Oct.
This is the voltage that determines the ion energy. Plasma formation requires its own power supplies and electronics systems, and this entire electrical package must be biased at the extraction voltage, since the plasma and plasma containment device are also at extraction voltage. This specific concern, providing the high-voltage-biased plasma electrical system, often adds considerable expense and complication to an ion source system. , the extractor, that we have chosen in this example is a three-grid, multi-aperture system.
R. Pierce, Theory and Design of Electron Beams (Van Nostrand, Toronto, 1954), pp. 177, 181.  A. M. G. Brown, IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 26, 1353 (1998). T. Forrester, Large Ion Beams (Wiley, New York, 1988). A. MacGill, A. G. Brown, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 672 (2000). G. Brown, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 3061 (1994). G. M. Oks, IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 25, 1222 (1997). 1 Introduction As well as improving the plasma generator to produce higher charge states and a higher number of particles, the extraction system has to be optimized simultaneously, otherwise the emittance of the extracted beam will grow unnecessarily or the extraction will fail totally.
Amateur telescope making by Ingalis A.G. (ed.)