By Theodore von Karman, Engineering
Authoritative and fascinating, this renowned background strains the technology of aerodynamics from the age of Newton throughout the mid-twentieth century. writer Theodore von Karman, a widely known pioneer in aerodynamic study, addresses himself to readers accustomed to the proof of aviation yet much less acquainted with the field's underlying theories.
A former director of the Aeronautical Laboratory on the California Institute of expertise, von Karman based the U.S. Institute of Aeronautical Sciences in 1933. during this quantity, he employs easy, nontechnical language to recount the behind-the-scenes struggles of engineers and physicists with difficulties linked to elevate, drag, balance, aeroelasticity, and the sound barrier. He explains how an expanding figuring out of the movement of air and its forces on relocating items enabled major advancements in aircraft layout, functionality, and safety.
Other themes contain the results of velocity on ailerons; the standards at the back of the phenomenon of a sonic growth; and the plethora of difficulties surrounding the inception of house trip: surmounting the earth's gravitational box, negotiating a secure go back, and maintaining existence amid the perils of interstellar radiation, weightlessness, and meteoric activity.
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17. Alembert, J. Le R. d’, Essai d’une nouvelle thiorie de la risislance &s fluides (Paris, I 752); Opuscules mathimatiques (Paris, I 768)) V, I 32I 38. Helmholtz, H. von, “Uber discontinuirliche Fliissigkeitsbewegungen,” Monatsberichte der Kiniglichen Akademie der Wissenschaften a Berlin ( I 868)) 2I 5-228. I 9. , “Zur Theorie freier Flussigkeitsstrahlen,” Journal f i r die reine und angewandte Mathematik, 70 (I 869)) 289-298. 20. Rayleigh, Lord, “On the Resistance of Fluids,” Philosophical Magazine, series 5, 2 (1876),430-441;also Scientijc Papers (Cambridge, 1899)) 4287-296.
I t is not without interest to consider the characteristic data of the first airplane of the Wright brothers in the light of the theoretical speculations sketched above. 5 pounds per square foot. This wing loading is a little larger than that of a vulture (Fig. IO),and seventeen times less than that of a fully loaded Douglas DC-3 airplane, for example. The net power available from their I 2-horsepower engine with the 66-percent propeller efficiency stated by Orville Wright can be estimated to be 4,300 foot-pounds per second.
As we shall see in a later chapter, such wings, €or example the well-known delta wing, have recently become very important because of their application in high-speed flight. I have mentioned before that F’randtl assumed the flow around every cross T H E THEORY O F LIFT section of the wing perpendicular to the span to be approximated by a two-dimensional flow. For wings of very small aspect ratio, Jones made the opposite of Prandtl’s assumption. He postulated that the flow around every cross section perpendicular to the flight direction can be approximated by the two-dimensional flow around the same cross section, superposed on the original uniform stream.
Aerodynamics: Selected Topics in the Light of Their Historical Development by Theodore von Karman, Engineering