By Tomek Strzalkowski, Sanda Harabagiu
This new Springer quantity offers a accomplished and specific examine present techniques to automatic query answering. the extent of presentation is acceptable for rookies to the sector in addition to for pros wishing to check this quarter and/or to construct useful QA structures. The booklet can function a "how-to" guide for IT practitioners and process builders. it will possibly even be used to coach graduate classes in computing device technological know-how, details technology and similar disciplines.
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Just over 100, remember? com) A3: 148 Americans were killed in the Gulf War, and 458 were wounded. com) A4: Approximately 350 US and allied military personnel were killed in the Gulf War. au) A5: In all, only 313 American troops were killed in the Gulf War, while the fourth largest army in the world – that of Iraq – was left devastated. org) A6: In the Gulf War, less than one one-hundredth of one percent of the 537,000 Americans participants died. org) 6. 1 Motivation In addition to textual information, recently the Web has grown to include a plethora of other useful multimedia information, such as images, sounds, movies.
Since the experiments are performed on the Web, the document collection is about 1000 times larger than the static collection used in the QA track. Furthermore, the heterogeneous nature of the Web, together with the limited indexing power of the search engines, make it impossible to ensure that all test questions are answered by at least one Web document. Broken links, communication failures, Web server maintenance procedures are technical aspects that hardly affect a static collection such as TREC10, but cannot be ignored in a dynamic environment such as Web search.
Rather than general information ( find anything about the stock 24 D. MOLDOVAN, M. PAŞCA AND M. SURDEANU market). With present search technology, there is limited support for specific information needs. Many search engines try to address the problem by developing advanced interfaces to support complex, Boolean queries. However, few queries submitted on the Web contain Boolean operators, and usage of Boolean operators actually has very small impact on the results (Jansen, 2000). Output granularity is another disadvantage of search engines.
Advances in Open Domain Question Answering (Text, Speech and Language Technology) by Tomek Strzalkowski, Sanda Harabagiu