By Fred R. Glahe
An Inquiry into the character and reasons of the Wealth of countries is the magnum opus of the Scottish economist Adam Smith. it's a sincerely written account of economics on the sunrise of the commercial Revolution, in addition to a rhetorical piece written for the commonly trained person of the 18th century - advocating a unfastened industry economic system as extra efficient and more desirable to society.The paintings is credited as a watershed in background and economics as a result of its complete, principally actual characterization of financial mechanisms that live to tell the tale in glossy economics; and in addition for its powerful use of rhetorical approach, together with structuring the paintings to distinction actual international examples of loose and fettered markets.---Исследование о природе и причине богатства народов (англ. An Inquiry into the character and reasons of the Wealth of countries) — основная работа шотландского экономиста Адама Смита, опубликованная nine марта 1776 года во времена Шотландского просвещения.Книга оказала значительное влияние на экономическую теорию и в частности на политическую экономию.Ещё при жизни Адама Смита книга выдержала пять изданий в Англии (в 1776, 1778, 1784, 1786 и 1789), была издана во Франции (первый перевод в 1779 году) и в Германии. Огромное количество изданий было сделано после смерти Смита (1790 год).Трактат состоит из five книг:
Причины увеличения производительности труда и порядок, в соответствии с которым его продукт естественным образом распределяется между классами народа;
О природе капитала, его накоплении и применении;
О развитии благосостояния у разных народов;
О системах политической экономии;
О доходах монарха или государства.
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Extra info for Adam Smith - An Inquiry Into The Nature And Causes Of The Wealth Of Nations
It naturally aims at bringing always that precise quantity thither which may be sufficient to supply, and no more than supply, that demand. But, in some employments, the same quantity of industry will, in different years, produce very different quantities of commodities ; while, in others, it will produce always the same, or very nearly the same. The same number of labourers in husbandry will, in different years, produce very different quantities of corn, wine, oil, hops, etc. But the same number of spinners or weavers will every year produce the same, or very nearly the same, quantity of linen and woollen cloth.
As soon as land becomes private property, the landlord demands a share of almost all the produce which the labourer can either raise or collect from it. His rent makes the first deduction from the produce of the labour which is employed upon land. It seldom happens that the person who tills the ground has wherewithal to maintain himself till he reaps the harvest. His maintenance is generally advanced to him from the stock of a master, the farmer who employs him, and who would have no interest to employ him, unless he was to share in the produce of his labour, or unless his stock was to be replaced to him with a profit.
The exclusive privileges of corporations, statutes of apprenticeship, and all those laws which restrain in particular employments, the competition to a smaller number than might otherwise go into them, have the same tendency, though in a less degree. They are a sort of enlarged monopolies, and may frequently, for ages together, and in whole classes of employments, keep up the market price of particular commodities above the natural price, and maintain both the wages of the labour and the profits of the stock employed about them somewhat above their natural rate.
Adam Smith - An Inquiry Into The Nature And Causes Of The Wealth Of Nations by Fred R. Glahe