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Read e-book online 21st Century Economics: A Reference Handbook PDF

By Rhona C. Free

ISBN-10: 1412961424

ISBN-13: 9781412961424

Curiosity in economics is at an all-time excessive. one of the demanding situations dealing with the state is an financial system with quickly emerging unemployment, disasters of significant companies and industries, and persisted dependence on oil with its wildly fluctuating fee. Economists have handled such questions for generations, yet they've got taken on new which means and significance.

Tackling those questions and encompassing research of conventional monetary idea and subject matters in addition to those who economists have in simple terms extra lately addressed, 21st Century Economics: A Reference Handbook is a must have reference resource.

Key Features

  • Provides hugely readable summaries of idea and versions in key parts of micro and macroeconomics, valuable for college kids attempting to get a ''big picture'' feel of the field
  • Includes introductions to appropriate thought in addition to empirical facts, worthwhile for readers attracted to studying approximately fiscal research of a subject besides for college kids embarking on learn projects
  • Features chapters eager about state-of-the-art issues with allure for economists trying to find out about extensions of research into new parts in addition to new methods
  • Presents models in graphical format and summarizes empirical facts in ways in which don't require a lot historical past in information or econometrics, with a view to maximize accessibility to students

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Extra info for 21st Century Economics: A Reference Handbook

Example text

The conditions under which governments can ensure protection of property rights and enforcement of contracts, already emphasized by Smith as key requirements for market economies to function properly, have been studied in greater depth from the 1990s onward. Focus on governance and institutions sometimes accompanies criticisms of pro–free market principles but sometimes supports the free-market tradition of thought by providing a more precise definition of how the government can create conditions for markets to function properly.

Evolution of Institutions North won the Nobel Prize in Economics for adding the causal factor of the evolution of institutions to the neoclassical growth model. A key institution is the regime of property rights, which gives economic agents incentive to save and invest in physical, financial, and human capital. Political institutions evolve that specify and enforce these property rights. Institutions, like markets, provide incentives. Economists believe that when there are positive incentives to do so, people will respond with behavior that leads to growth.

Cournot was the first to prove that under competitive conditions, the quantity produced is such that its market price equals (what we would call today) its marginal cost. Economists of this time period are often referred to as “classical” economists. Other prominent classical writers include Thomas Malthus (1766–1834) and John Stuart Mill (1806–1873). There have been controversies on the definition of the classical school, its timeframe, and scope: Smith and Ricardo are considered among its main contributors, while Cournot is less frequently included, although there are similarities and differences between all three.

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21st Century Economics: A Reference Handbook by Rhona C. Free

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